Thank you for posting your question about audio streaming from your phone in Windows 10. I’m sorry to say that it isn’t possible.
The problem arises because Windows 10 does not include a profile that allows streaming from a phone to the computer, as you have noticed.
In Windows 7, Windows didn’t include any audio profiles at all, so the driver software for the adapter added those profiles as part of a third-party installation, including an audio profile for phones.
Up through Windows 8.1, that software still worked. However, in an update to Windows 10 that Microsoft pushed late September last year, almost all of the core Bluetooth system files were changed, and since then the original software for the adapter (WIDCOMM Bluetooth software) causes blue screens in Windows 10. This forces the adapter to rely on the driver downloaded from the Microsoft driver repository and the native Bluetooth software in Windows 10, and we are stuck with the profiles that Microsoft provides.
Unfortunately, there is no clear path at this time to changing this situation.
I wish I could give you better news.