Well at least the device is working as intended on another machine. It’s odd that it wouldn’t work even on USB 2.0 ports on your new mobo.
Updating host controller drivers may very well help with this. Looking into the specs of your board, it looks like MSI used a crazy combination of three different USB host controllers with a built-in hub, so the USB interactions here might be a little strange. You might try playing USB port bingo a bit to see if the microscope will work on one of the ports.
I’d recommend against messing with the drivers on this system if you aren’t planning on using the microscope with it. This setup could prove to be a little fragile.
If you want to pursue this I suggest contacting me at firstname.lastname@example.org so I can dig a little deeper!